Background

The first survey was the “Family Budget Surveys” which covered families of public servants lived in Ankara and families of workers in İstanbul, and which was initiated and conducted by Conjuncture Publication Department at the Ministry of Commerce in 1933. Following these surveys various institutions and agencies also conducted several researches on the same subject in later years.

Turkish Statistical Institute had initiated family budget surveys first in 4 major cities in our country, namely Adana, Ankara, İzmir and İstanbul in 1964. In the second phase, considering the requirement that cities must have represented the region in which they were located; provincial centers of Samsun, Antalya, Diyarbakır, Bursa, Ordu, Erzurum, and Eskişehir were included in the scope of the survey. 1968 based consumer price index was prepared on basis of results of this survey covering 11 provincial centers.

For the first time of its history Turkish Statistical Institute had organized a survey which covered a whole geographical section of the country together with cooperation of Ministry of National Education and State Planning Organization and conducted a Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Survey in 400 settlement areas which were selected among rural areas with population less than 2000 by means of sampling method. Following years the Institute had continued its studies and conducted monthly surveys in 1978-79 in 40 settlement areas with populations over 10 001 on different 822 households.

For the first time the Household Income and Consumption Survey was conducted to cover overall Turkey in 1987 and with this survey information revealing income and consumption variations by regions, population groups, rural and urban areas in Turkey was obtained. Every month the survey was reiterated on total 2 200 households at 139 settlement areas of which 50 were selected from urban areas with population over 20 001, and 89 fixed settlement areas were selected from rural areas with population below 20 000, and respectively 1 202 and 998 different households were selected from such urban and rural areas for a period of one year on monthly basis. Results of this survey were used to determine base year prices and base weights of 1987 Consumer Price Index, and for 1987 income distribution analyses.

And, 1994 Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Survey had a different methodology and had been conducted in two steps separately to collect information pertaining to consumption expenditures and income distribution. To this end, a Household Consumption Expenditure Survey was conducted on different 2 188 sample households throughout Turkey in every month between January, 1 and December 31, 1994. In this survey those settlement areas whose populations were 20 001 and over were defined as urban areas and others whose populations were 20 000 or below were considered as rural areas. This survey was conducted on 2 188 households (1 522 in urban and 666 in rural areas) in 62 urban and 174 rural areas every month with rotation. Results of this survey were used to determine base year prices and weights of 1994 based Consumer Price Indexes, and estimates pertaining to overall Turkey, Urban, Rural, 7 Geographical Region, and selected 19 provincial centers were obtained on basis of such results. In the second phase a “Household Income Distribution Survey” was conducted on total 26 256 sample households covered under Consumption Expenditure Survey between February 8 and May 1, 1995.

With 2002 Turkish Statistical Institute had planned to conduct relatively small-scale, regular annual Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Surveys. To this end, 2002 Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Survey was conducted on 800 sample households per month with approximately 650 different households from urban areas and 150 from rural areas between January 1 and December 31, 2002 to obtain consumption expenditure and income distribution indices classified in terms of overall Turkey, urban and rural areas.

Title of Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Survey was changed as Household Budget Survey in 2003, and estimation level was revised and sample size was increased to 25 920 households in accordance with Statistical regions to form a basis for EU harmonization studies. Estimation level of 2003 Household Budget Survey was as follows: Turkey, Urban, Rural, Statistical Region I (Total, Rural, Urban), Statistical Region II (Total).

It has continued to carry out yearly regular surveys with less sample size since 2004. Main indicators on consumption expenditures and poverty based on expenditure were obtained from the survey at annual basis for whole Turkey and urban and rural areas. It is possible to have only estimates at whole Turkey and urban and rural discrimination by using yearly survey data and it would be possible to have estimates on percentage distribution of expenditures at regional level (Statistical Region) by combining current year's data and previous two years' data beginning from 2004.

Household Budget Survey’s sampling design and frame were based on the law called "The Law of Establishment of Greater Municipality in Thirteen Provinces and Twenty-Six District Municipality” from 2014 which is valid under the new administrative division. Because of the villages united with greater municipalities in the province, the significant differences in the distribution of urban and rural areas have emerged. While 36 thousand 854 settlements in the rural areas for the old administrative division has dropped to 19 thousand 78 in the new administrative division. According to the older administrative division, the urban population rate was 72.3%, in the new administrative division has risen 86.5%.

Until the studies on the new definitions of urban and rural areas were concluded, the results will only be given as whole Turkey on consumption expenditure, estimations for urban and rural areas will not be released.

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