Definitions and Concepts

Enterprise: An enterprise is an organizational unit that produces goods and services using decision autonomy concerning allocation of resources. An enterprise is real or legal personality that produces goods and services on the market by carrying out one or more activities at one or more locations.

Local unit:
Local unit is an enterprise or part thereof carrying out activities corresponding to goods and services situated in a geographically identified place. Local unit is a part of enterprise that has a geographically defined address like center of the enterprise, office, store, canteen, factory, workshop, mine, construction site, hotel, restaurant, cafe, school, hospital, and depot. At or from this place economic activity is carried out for which one or more persons work full time or part time for one enterprise. The center of the enterprise is also a local unit.

Environmental protection activity:
Environmental protection activities are the activities whose primary purpose is the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and other forms of degradation of the environment. (project planning, establishing and operating of drinking water and sewerage network, treatment plant and solid waste disposal or disposal plant, reclamation activities, consultancy services on all kinds of environmental issues, environmental impact assessment etc.)

Environmental employment:
The employees working in environmental activities are environmental employment. In addition to environmental activities, employee dealing with different jobs are also considered as environmental employment.

Full time equivalent: In the questionnaire, the variables “the total number of employees, daily and annual working hours, the number of employee working in environmental activities, and the daily and annual periods spent by these personnel in environmental activities” are used for the calculation of full time equivalent employment. The general formula is as follows:

Environmental protection expenditure: It is the money spent on all purposeful activities directly aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of environmental pollution originating from production processes and consumption of goods and services. For the public sector administrative, monitoring, and enforcement expenditure are included. Actions which have a favorable impact on the environment but which serve primarily other goals do not come under environmental protection

Current expenditure are the outlays for own production of environmental services and specific goods bought in from the market. Current expenditure includes personnel payment, personnel’s domestic and international travel expenses, expenditures for service procurement, expenditure of equipment and consumable goods. For example, operating expenses of the treatment plant, payments for consultancy services etc.

Investment expenditure is the outlays (purchases and own-account production) on land and on additions of new durable goods to the stock of fixed assets for environmental protection. Investment expenditure includes expenses for buildings and facilities and purchases of machinery and equipment. (For example; project planning and construction of treatment plants or disposal sites etc.

Environmental revenue: It includes revenues from sales of environmental by-products and waste/scrap and/or revenues obtained from environmental services given to same sector or other sectors (i.e. establishments, municipalities, etc.).

By-products: They are the products of economic value that are turned out as a result of the environmental protection activities (purification, recovery etc.) of the enterprise. It is possible that enterprises earn income on the basis of their own use of by-products and/or generate revenue after sale of the by-product. The revenue earned of by-products comprises:

  • Sale of by-products resulting from environmental activities (eg, plaster is turned on as a by-product after the use of lime during flue gas desulphurization, income from sale of plaster, etc.)
  • Re-use or sale of the substance / materials resulting from the recovery activity (eg income from re-use of the chromium or silver in the wastewater after it has been recovered)
  • The use and sale of energy generated by the treatment of wastes (eg, the generation of energy from the burning of biogas or wastes produced in a wastewater treatment plant, and the gain from the reuse of this energy in an enterprise).
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